Why do we sleep?

Exercise, Health, Lifestyle

sleeping problems

What is sleep?

Sleep is a state of altered consciousness of the mind and body which typically lasts for several hours every night. It involves the inactivity of the nervous system, relaxation of all the muscle of the body and is considered important for optimal health.

Sleep pattern

The normal sleep pattern involves the alternating REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep that occurs in a 90-minute interval cycle in a typical night’s sleep.

There are four phases:

Stage 1: Light sleep – between being awake and sleeping

Stage 2: Initiating sleep, drop in the body temperature, regular heart rate and breathing.

Stage 3 and 4: The deepest form of sleep when the breathing slows down and the blood supply to all the organs increases, the repair process begin, muscles are relaxed, the blood pressure goes down, various hormones like growth hormone are released.

What is the importance of REM and NREM?

REM makes up about 25% of the night’s sleep: It first begins about 90 minutes after falling asleep. Lasts for some time and recurs about every 90 minutes. In the REM stage, the brain is more active, heart rate is raised and intense dreams can occur. At this stage, brain development occurs as the area of learning in the brain is stimulated.

Like deep NREM sleep, REM sleep also helps protein binding for growth.

During the NREM sleep, the body restores its functions of the brain, repairs and regrows tissues, promotes growth, and improves the immune system.

Benefits of sleep 

Normal Brain function and development: Sleep is essential for maintaining the normal levels of cognitive skills. ( This include speech, memory, innovative and focused thinking.)

Emotional well-being: Sleep can give you a feeling a sense of freshness, motivation and relaxation.

Physical health:

  • Sleep will help maintain hormonal balance in the body. For example, the hormones that regulate hunger and insulin regulation for blood sugar levels.
  • It is involved in the healing process of your heart and blood vessels.
  • It can support growth and development in children and teens by releasing hormones that builds muscle mass and helps the body repair.
  • It plays a role in puberty and fertility. 
  • It can improve immunity and help fight infections better.

Good physical performance levels:

  • Sleep can improve concentration, focus, awareness and general activeness of your body. 
  • It improves your ability to perform skillful activities.

How much sleep is recommended?

Age Recommended Amount of Sleep
Newborn babies about 17 to 18 hours per day
Preschool children about 11 to 12 hours per day
School children Minimum 10 hours per day
Teenagers about 9 to 10 hours a day
Adults (including the elders) about 7 to 8 hours a day

Sleep deficit 

Sleep deficiency can increase the risk for some chronic health problems.

  • Heart disease: Lack of sleep will keep the heart rate elevated leading to increased calcification (calcium deposits) in the blood vessels of the heart. There is also an increase in CRP (C-reactive protein), which is released with stress and inflammation that can lead to heart problems.
  • Obesity: Lack of sleep can interfere with appetite regulation due to imbalances in the hormones that regulate hunger. This can lead to eating at night when your body’s metabolism is low causing excessive fat storage leading to obesity.
  • Diabetes: Due to the increase in food intake and lack of rest, hormonal imbalances can affect the insulin response in the body. The metabolism of glucose is affected due to insulin resistant that can lead to type 2 Diabetes.
  • High blood pressure: With insufficient rest, the heart rate remains elevated. This raises the blood pressure which may cause hypertension.
  • Stroke or transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke):  It is related to elevated heart rate and hypertension that can lead to a reduction of blood supply to the brain leading to a stroke or mini-stroke.
  • Depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Due to lack of rest and interference in the brain function, lack of sleep can cause problems with thinking, mood swings, depression and hormonal imbalances that may lead to ADHD and depression.

Sleep Disorders – There can be about 81 disorders.

  • Insomnias (Sleeplessness): There can be difficulty at the beginning of sleep, maintaining sleep, abrupt waking from sleep, waking too early or poor quality sleep. This sleep difficulty can occur despite all attempts of trying hard to sleep.  This can be related to mental disorder, restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea or due to drug side-effects.
  • Sleep-related breathing disorders: Cheyne-Stokes breathing pattern is characterized by a gradual increase in the breathing followed by a gradual decrease and holding of breath for 5 to 50 seconds. This type of respiratory problem is also typically seen with other medical problems of the heart and kidney.
  • Sleep apnea: Irregular breathing pattern with disruption or episodes of breathlessness. It can be due to lack of sleep causing arterial oxygen desaturation (reduction in oxygen in the blood).
  • Hypersomnias (Narcolepsy): This involves daytime sleepiness and may be related to dysfunction in the brain due to increased lack of sleep at night or misaligned circadian rhythms (body clock).
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder: The “body clock” or the circadian rhythm is the 24-hour cycle that tells your body when to sleep and helps to regulate many other physiological processes. Disturbances can occur between the person’s sleep pattern and the pattern that is desired. For example, one cannot sleep when sleep is desired.
  • Parasomnias: The parasomnias consist of abnormal sleep-related movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions or dreaming. It occurs while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep. They are disorders that cause sudden waking up or a state of disturbed sleep.
  • Sleep-related movement disorders: Restless legs syndrome, sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder, large movements of the body or legs while sleeping can affect normal sleep pattern.

Other problems: 

Snoring is a sound produced by breathing. Snoring can also lead to impaired health as it can disturb the sleep of the individual and their sleeping partner. 

Sleep talking and sleep walking can be associated with REM sleep behavior disorder or sleep-related eating disorder. Usually, the person can get a sensation of falling, a sensory flash of walking to a place or a sleep-onset dream that can cause talking or walking. 

Who can be at risk of sleep disorders?

  • Working on odd timings/shifts:  Job timings that are against the internal body clock and working long hours.
  • Lifestyle problems: People who take medications to stay awake to complete tasks and studies. Other problems like alcohol or substance abuse.
  • Known or unknown medical condition: People who take medications that have side-effects that interfere with sleep. People with underlying unknown problems like stress and anxiety.

How is sleep problems diagnosed?

  • Blood Tests can be done to help find other underlying medical problems that can cause sleep problems.
  • Sleep studies (polysomnography): The electric activity in the brain (Electroencephalogram studies), behavior and other changes are observed while the person is asleep to study the problems associated.

How to get a good amount of sleep?

  • Sleep schedule should be kept the same every night. Avoid differences that may disturb your body clock.
  • Avoid strenuous exercise or doing work before bed as that will keep your brain active and delay sleep.
  • Avoid cigarettes (nicotine) and caffeine. Nicotine and caffeine are brain stimulants so both substances can interfere with sleep.
  • Getting enough fresh air and sun during the day can also help a good night’s sleep.
  • Learning relaxation techniques like breathing exercises can help.
  • Taking a warm shower before sleep can also relax the body. Keeping the bedroom cool and dark will also help prevent any disturbances.

If you have any type of sleep issues due to a shift-work schedule, it’s best to speak to your employer or consider visiting the experts to better understand your issues and eliminate the worry of any underlying medical condition.

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Obesity – Adult vs Children

Common conditions, Food, Health, Lifestyle

Obesity

Obesity is the presence of excessive adipose tissue (fat) mass affecting the health status of any individual to an extent that it may lead to the risk of other serious health conditions. It is one of the most common global health problem replacing the more traditional public health issues.

Obesity in adults vs children

In order to classify an adult as obese, the body mass index (BMI) can be calculated that best classifies an individual according to his height and weight. 

BMI: It is the weight of the individuals body divided by the square of the body height ( expressed as kg/m2). The standard classification of an individual is given in table 1.

BMI good one

Note-BMI is not the best indicator for health as your excessive weight can also be due to healthy bulging muscles rather than fat storage. It does not give information on the fat storage distribution in the body especially in the waist region and cannot be used as a predictor for lifestyle changes and benefits.

Obesity in children  

In infants and children within 5 years of age, the obesity is determined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) “Child growth standards” and the WHO reference values for 5-19 years (body mass index-for-age).

WHO classification (birth to age 5)

  • Obese: Body mass index (BMI) > 3 standard deviations* above the WHO growth standard median*. 
  • Overweight: BMI > 2 standard deviations* above the WHO growth standard median*.

WHO classification (ages 5 to 19)

  • Obese: Body mass index (BMI) > 2 standard deviations* above the WHO growth standard median* (equivalent to BMI 30 kg/m2 at 19 years).
  • Overweight: BMI > 1 standard deviation* above the WHO growth standard median* (equivalent to BMI 25 kg/m2 at 19 years). 
*Growth Standard median: This is the standard of weight given for boys and girls by WHO according to the weight-for-length and weight-for-height of the children at a particular age.
*Standard Deviation: The weight difference of a child when compared to the mean (average) weight of the children belonging in the same age group.

Other classification for childhood obesity

  • Child is overweight: if BMI at or above the 85th percentile* and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex.
  • Child is Obese: if BMI is at or above the 95th percentile* for children of the same age and sex.
*Percentile: It is a term used in statistics to give a value of a percentage of a child’s weight compared to the weights of the children of the same age group. For example, a test score that is greater than or equal to 75% of the scores of people who took the test is said to be at the 75th percentile rank.

Measuring Body fat in Adults

Waist Circumference: This method measures excessive fat around the waist and can be used as an additional measure in people who are obese or pre-obese according to the BMI.

For men, a waist circumference no more than 94cm and for women no more than 80cm is considered a safe range. Beyond which, one can develop obesity-related health problems.

Factors that lead to obesity

Genetic factors: The risk of obesity can be more if one or both parents are obese. This relationship of genes and obesity due to the environment and eating habits.

Age: With age, there can be a decrease in the metabolism of the body and loss of muscle mass. If physical inactivity ensues, coupled with bad eating habits, this can easily increase their ability to store fat in the body. Sometimes hormonal changescan also play a role leading to obesity. 

Gender differences: Women tend to gain weight during pregnancy due to hormonal changes.  Hormonal changes including estrogen, progesterone hormones can lead to weight gain. Imbalances in these hormones can also trigger insulin resistance, which in turn, leads to fat storage. In Men, imbalances in testosterone hormone can lead to weight gain. In general, it is observed that women are more at risk of weight gain compared to men also due to lifestyle differences.

Lifestyle:

  • Physical activity: With improvements in modern technology and conveniences, there is an increasing lack of physical activity. 
  • Food habits: Consuming foods with excessive fat, sugar and calorific foods. Increased snacking and overeating can lead to excessive fat storage.
  • Stress and lack of sleep: Both stress and lack of sleep can slow the body’s metabolism. Eating late at night can cause indigestion and leads to fat storage. 
  • Socio-Economic Status: Lack of resources, lack of access to healthy foods, unable to afford healthy foods or improper cooking habits, eating out too often can all lead to obesity.  
  • Side effects of medications: Certain pain medication, corticosteroids, antidepressants, thyroid medications taken by people with thyroid problems and other medicines can slow down metabolism and lead to fat storage. 
  • Known Medical Problem: Arthritis in the lower limb causing pain on weight bearing can reduce physical activity that leads to increasing fat storage.

Diseases such as stroke, kidney disease, Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome and many others can prevent the person from engaging into physical activities due to pain or muscle/joint problems etc.  

Consequences of Obesity

obesity problems

Metabolic problems: 

The major metabolic risk factors resulting from obesity are

  • An increase in the total cholesterol concentrations especially triacylglycerol concentrations, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations.
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes: Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.

All this may lead to Metabolic syndrome that describes a group of risk factors that can increase the risk of developing a heart condition. 

Diabetes: Obesity can lead to deficiencies in sex-specific steroid hormones (estrogen, progestin etc) that causes insulin resistance and a decrease in glucose metabolism. 

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD): Metabolic syndrome and diabetes can lead to atherosclerosis and blocking of the major arteries of the heart leading to a heart condition.

Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory condition that can be caused by obesity. Excessive weight gain can lead to wear-and-tear of the cartilage and bone leading to inflammatory joints. Other reasons underlying the relationship between obesity and osteoarthritis can be metabolic changes associated with increased fat storage. 

Pulmonary disease: Excessive weight gain in the upper body can increases breathlessness that will lead to CO2 retained in the body and a mismatch in the ventilation and blood flow that further worsens the respiratory system.

Hypertension: The exact cause is unknown, however, due to weight gain there is an increase in resistance to blood flow to and from the extremities. Increases in body mass index (BMI) can put an individual at a higher risk of developing hypertension. 

Gallbladder disease: Obesity is associated with increased secretion of cholesterol in the gallbladder that increases the risk of gallstones particularly cholesterol gallstones.

Hormonal disturbances: Increased obesity in women leads to increased male hormone (testosterone) production leading to hormonal imbalances. Upper body obesity is associated with an increase in testosterone that may be a major cause of problems related to menstruation. Obese men can also get hormonal problems that lead to erectile dysfunction. Childhood obesity can cause early puberty and hormonal problems later in adulthood.

Some forms of cancer:  There is an increased risk of growth of cancer cells in various body tissue among obese people. 

Fatty liver: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition in which fat storage is excessive in the liver that can cause inflammation of the liver tissue and scarring(Cirrhosis).

Various psychological problems: There has been increased links of obesity with depression and mood problems possibly due to underlying hormonal problems or other conditions.

Prevention and Treatment 

  • Realistic healthy weight loss goal

Comprehensive lifestyle changes: 

  • Dietary changes: Avoid calorific or sugary foods. Developing meal plans to track what you consume. Seeking advice from a specialist to know what nutrients you are lacking or how to go about the changes. 
  • Increasing physical activity
  • Exercise: 3-4 times per week for 30 minutes each. 
  • Group support: Joining a weight loss group can help psychologically and improve motivational level toward achieving your goals.
  • Relaxation and stress management

Adherence to a weight loss program is important to bring about changes and to prevent health problems due to obesity. For further detailed assessment and treatment, it is best to consult an expert for individualized weight loss programs.

Varicose and Spider Veins – What are they and How to avoid them.

anatomy, Common conditions, Exercise, Health

main pic veins

What are Varicose and Spider veins?

Varicose veins are abnormal, dilated blood vessels (veins) caused by a weakening in the vessel wall. They may appear as swollen, twisted clusters of blue or purple veins.

Varicose veins are sometimes surrounded by thin, red capillaries also known as spider veins.

(group of tiny blood vessels located close to the surface of the skin, also called telangiectasias) – Refer Fig 1.

varicose veins
Fig 1: Varicose vs Spider veins

Role of veins and formation of abnormal veins

Veins carry blood back to the heart and have one-way valves that prevent the blood from back-flowing. The calf muscles act as a pump by which the blood is pumped back from the legs towards the heart as shown in Fig 2.

Deep Leg Veins

Fig 2: Normal blood flow through Veins, Calf muscle pump

If those valves of the veins become weak from extended periods of increased pressure and swelling, the blood can back up and collect within the veins. This causes the vein walls to weaken and bulge with blood, causing the veins to appear swollen and twisted as shown in Fig 3.

deformed valves

Fig 3: Normal vs Abnormal blood flow

Who can get it and where does it happen?

Varicose veins and spider veins can occur both in men and women. However, women are known to be affected more than men due to their hormonal predisposition and changes during pregnancy that affect the veins. 

These abnormal veins can develop anywhere, but most often appear on the legs and in the pelvic area because as compared with other veins in the body. This is because, lower limb veins work harder to carry blood back to the heart with forces from the body weight and gravity acting at the same time. This pressure can be stronger than the one-way valves in the veins.

Most varicose veins are seen on the surface of the skin as the superficial veins get swollen with blood collected in it that get raised on the surface and at times above the surface of the skin.  

Signs and Symptoms

Some may not have any symptoms but may be concerned about the appearance of the veins. Symptoms usually worsen after prolonged standing or sitting as the blood pools or collects in the veins of the lower limbs. 

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Fig 4: Swelling, Skin changes and Ulcers due to varicose veins

If symptoms occur, they may include:

  • Tiredness, burning, throbbing, tingling or heaviness in the legs
  • Itching around the vein
  • Swollen legs (Refer Fig 4)
  • Muscle cramps, soreness or aching in the legs
  • Brown discoloration of the skin, especially around the ankles (Refer Fig 4)
  • Leg ulcers (Refer fig 4)
  • Rarely varicose veins can form a painful blood clot, referred to as superficial thrombophlebitis (inflammation of a vein).

Risk factors and causes of abnormal veins

Varicose veins are related to increased pressure in the leg veins or defective valves in the veins.

They can happen due to reasons:

  • Idiopathic: The exact cause of this problem is unknown.
  • Heredity: A family history of varicose veins can put a person at risk of developing abnormal veins.
  • Advancing age: With aging veins can lose elasticity causing them to stretch. The valves in your veins may become weak, allowing blood that should be moving toward your heart to back-flow.
  • Prolonged standing or sitting.
  • Being overweight puts extra pressure on your veins, which means damage to the valves, making them more prone to swell.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnancy increases the volume of blood in your body but decreases the flow of blood from your legs to your pelvis. This circulatory change is designed to support the growing foetus but it can produce an unfortunate side effect — enlarged veins in your legs.
  • Hormonal influences during pregnancy, postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy and use of birth control pills can cause excessive swelling in the lower limbs that hampers blood flow through veins. 
  • Wearing tight clothes can put pressure on the veins which can cause abnormal blood flow.
  • Injury to the veins due to trauma or accidents.
  • Other health conditions that cause increased pressure in the abdomen including liver disease, fluid in the abdomen, previous groin surgery or heart failure.

How is Varicose and Spider veins diagnosed?

A physical examination of the body especially the legs while the person is standing is done. A Doppler ultrasound scan can also check the blood flow in the veins near the skin’s surface and the deep veins. 

When to seek medical care?

  • Walking or standing becomes painful.
  • Soreness develops on or near a varicose vein
  • Your feet or ankles swell up very frequently.

If immediate care is not taken, symptoms may worsen. Complications may develop if there is an underlying disease in the deep veins or in the perforating veins which connect the deep and superficial veins.

  • Chronic venous insufficiency: Untreated venous problems may progress to a chronic condition of abnormal blood flow through the veins.
  • Venous stasis ulcers that result when the enlarged vein does not provide enough drainage of fluid from the skin. As a result, an ulcer (open sore) may form.
  • Fungal and bacterial infections may occur as the result of skin problems caused by the fluid buildup (edema) in the leg. These infections also increase the risk of tissue infection (cellulitis).
  • Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of the vein due to blood clot formation.
  • Venous hemorrhage: Bleeding through the veins due to micro-tears and ruptures.

How to prevent varicose veins and its complications?

Lifestyle modifications:

  • Losing weight if you are overweight
  • Exercising regularly (especially walking)
  • Avoiding prolonged periods of sitting or standing
  • Avoid wearing tight-fitting undergarments and clothing that constricts the waist, groin or legs.
  • Avoid crossing your legs while seated.
  • Elevating your legs while sitting and sleeping will help.
  • When you need to stand for long periods, take frequent breaks – sit down and elevate your feet.
  • Do ankle pump exercises as shown in Fig 5.

ankle pumps

If you still develop varicose or spider veins, it is best to seek medical attention to know more in details on exercises and lifestyle changes that can be personalized to your needs.  

Restless Legs Syndrome

Common conditions, Exercise, Foot, Health, Lifestyle

restless leg syndrome

What is restless legs syndrome?

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by an uncomfortable sensation in the legs and rarely the arms. This leads to an overwhelming urge to move them continuously.

These movements may,

  • happen to partially or totally relieve discomfort.
  • begin or worsen during periods of rest such as lying or sitting
  • worsen during sleep, causes time to time movements also known as “periodic leg movements”.

It has also been suggested that RLS would be called “Willis-Ekbom disease”, as an homage to the two pioneers Thomas Willis and Karl-Axel Ekbom who first reported this condition. 

What causes RLS?

  • Unknown cause
  • Genetic cause

RLS symptoms are related to hyperexcitability of the central nervous system- brain and spinal cord due to a possible deficiency of a chemical called dopamine. Dopamine plays a role in controlling muscle movement and may be responsible for the involuntary leg movements associated with RLS.

  • Disorder of the peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system involves the nerves that carry signals from different parts of the body to the brain. The most likely possibility is the presence of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) caused by changes in blood flow or metabolism in the lower limbs that irritates the sensory nerves of the legs causing restlessness. 

  • Iron-deficiency anaemia – low levels of iron in the blood can lead to a drop in dopamine, triggering restless legs syndrome
  • Chronic (long-term) health conditions – such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, an underactive thyroid gland or fibromyalgia.
  • Radiculopathies: Radiculopathies are problems with the nerves and occur due to nerve compression at the spine caused by disc herniation and protrusion and/or disc degeneration. It is most commonly seen in the lower back regions (Lumbar spine). Nerve compression could cause referred pain and tingling sensations along the back of the leg to the feet that may be a secondary cause for RLS. 
  • Pregnancy – particularly from week 27 until birth; in most cases, the symptoms disappear within four weeks of giving birth
  • Side effects of certain medication: Antidepressants, Antipsychotic medicine, Lithium (used in the treatment of bipolar disorder), Calcium channel blockers (used in the treatment of high blood pressure), Antihistamines, Metoclopramide (used to relieve nausea). 
  • Lifestyle problems: Excessive smoking, caffeine/ alcohol, obesity, stress and lack of exercise.

Who can be affected with RLS?

  • Both the genders are affected but women are twice as likely to develop RLS than men which is still unknown and is suggested to be related to genetics, body functions or emotional differences. 
  • People of all ages can be affected but more commonly seen among middle-aged people secondary to other health conditions.

What are the signs and symptoms of RLS?

Signs and symptoms may vary from day to day, in severity and frequency from person to person during rest and most often during sleep. 

  • Abnormal sensations (Paresthesias)- pulling, creeping etc.
  • Unpleasant abnormal sensations (Dysesthesias)- the sensations range in severity from uncomfortable to irritating to painful example, tingling, burning, aching or like electric shocks.
  • Periodic leg movements during sleep
  • Typical movements like pacing and walking, jiggling the legs, stretching and bending, tossing and turning, rubbing the legs.
  • Inability to sleep leading to sleep disorders like insomnia (lack of sleep) due to increased urge to move or sudden waking up from sleep due to periodic leg movements.
  • Hyperactivity may be seen among children with RLS.
  • Fatigue/tiredness, lack of concentration, problems with cognitive function (related to thinking, attention and decision making) due to lack of sleep and excessive movements in the leg most often felt throughout the day.

How is RLS diagnosed?

There are no diagnostic tests that can diagnose RLS.

A thorough clinical assessment of the patient is necessary to be able to diagnose this condition. 

  • Clinical history: The history of the patient about signs and symptoms associated with RLS will be important for the diagnosis. The frequency, duration, and intensity of symptoms the aggravating and relieving factors as well as their tendency to occur during day and night time will be noted.
  • Family and Medical History: Family history and problems of other health conditions and the use of medications will be noted that may be the suggestive cause for RLS.
  • Neurological and physical examination: Examination of other underlying conditions related to muscle or nerve problems. 
  • Blood tests: blood test can be done to identify iron and vitamin deficiencies as well as other medical disorders associated with RLS.  
  • Sleep studies such as polysomnography (a test that records the individual’s brain waves, heartbeat, breathing, and leg movements during an entire night of sleep) may identify the presence of periodic leg movements and other problems of sleep.
  • RLS in children: This may be difficult since it may be hard for a child to describe any uncomfortable sensations in the leg and the urge for leg movements, when and how often the symptoms occur, and how long they last.
  • Misdiagnosis: RLS may be often misdiagnosed as “growing pains” or “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder” (ADHD) in children and may be mistaken to be an onset of another neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease in adults.

How can this condition be treated?

  • Most symptoms can be treated by therapeutic treatments that improve the blood circulation of the legs, muscle flexibility and allow the nerves of the legs to relax. This can help diminish the uncomfortable sensations caused by restless legs syndrome.
  • Identification and treatment of other health problems are important to reduce the symptoms of RLS.  
  • Intake of diet rich in iron and vitamins will be beneficial.
  • Reducing smoking and alcohol consumption.
  • Stress management will help reduce symptoms and improve sleep.

Severe problems with RLS can be also be treated along with prescribed medications that improve the dopamine levels in the body. However, RLS may generally be a lifelong condition.There may be periods of no symptoms but may eventually reappear sooner or later. Adhering to the treatment methods can help reduce the symptoms at all times.